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A. Ya. Flier. Ideology as a form of culture



In SEARCH of the MEANING of HISTORY and CULTURE (A. Ya. Flier’s Section)

V. M. Rozin. The Genesis of the European state (pondering Martin Creveld's book «The Rise and fall of the state»)

N. A. Khrenov. On the way to «Posthuman»: anthropological, mythological and artistic potential of the puppet (ending)

V. I. Grachev. Energy as a special substance of the Universe and Culture



HIGH ART IN a CULTURE of MODERNITY (E. N. Shapinskaya’s Sectoin)

E. N. Sapinskaya. The return of the repressed ethnicity: the ethnic and cultural Other in (post)modern world


N. A. Khrenov. Culture of the twentieth century: theatrical experiments in the era of escalating mass communication (ending)

A. P. Markov. The concept of "freedom as a conscious necessity": current meanings and non-entropic potential


A. Ya. Flier. Cultural history as a change dominant identity types (ending)

Announcement of the next issue



Markov Alexander Petrovich,
Doctor of pedagogical Sciences,
Doctor of cultural studies, Professor
Saint Petersburg humanitarian University


The concept of  "freedom as a conscious necessity": current meanings and non-entropic potential

Abstract. The analysis of semantic facets and behavioral modifications of freedom in post-industrial society is particularly relevant in the situation of civilizational crisis associated with the deformation of this deep anthropological constant. The author shows that in the system of humanitarian knowledge, the obvious tendency of freedom analysis is the dominance of the liberal approach, which defends the idea of the opposite of freedom and necessity. The conceptualization of freedom and necessity as mutually exclusive ontological modes emasculates the true essence of freedom: by tearing its bearer out of connection with the "realm of eternal and absolute truths", it reduces freedom as the substance of the Absolute spirit to its external manifestations of an Autonomous and self-sufficient personality and plunges a person into the space of cultural anomie. The proposed interpretation of freedom is an alternative to its liberal version. The author shows that freedom finds its source, justification, and meaning in "superpersonal necessity". The article examines the origins of the Western version of freedom, marked by a break with the Christian tradition, and describes the reasons for the devaluation of the fundamental meaning of freedom for Christian anthropology as the highest expression of the universality of the human spirit. In conclusion, the author identifies the key condition for overcoming the acute cultural and anthropological crisis, which is fraught with a change in the civilizational type of development: the rehabilitation of a free person who can curb the destructive element of greed and pride of consumer claims, freely accept as a necessity the life paradigm of altruism, prescribing compassion, mercy and readiness for self-denial, ignoring which is fraught with an unstoppable expansion of violence and the decline of human civilization.

Keywords: freedom, necessity, superpersonal will, responsibility, duty, truth, conscience, European humanism, liberalism, modernism, postmodernism, neo-pagan revolution, altruism.

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[14] Ibid.
[15] Wilchek Sun. Instead of a conclusion. Freedom is a conscious possibility // Neva. 1990. No. 7.
[16] Rozanov V. V. Decree. Op.
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[18] Ibid. P. 316.
[19] Maceina A. the Grand Inquisitor, St. Petersburg: Aletheia, 1999.
[20] Markov A. P. Entropy of freedom as a global problem of European culture // Questions of cultural studies. 2019. No. 12. Pp. 37-52.
[21] Panarin A. S. Orthodox civilization / Comp., Preface V. N. Rastorguev / Ed. OA Platonov. M.: Institute of Russian civilization, 2014. P. 279.
[22] Ibid. P. 305.
[23] Rozanov V. V. Decree. Op.



ISSN 2311-3723

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Scientific Association of Culture Researchers

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