Culture of culture

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A.Ya. Flier. A systematic model of the social functions of culture




A.V. Kostina, A.Ya. Flier. Ternary functional model of culture (continued)

V.M. Rozin. Features and constitution of musical reality

N.A. Khrenov. Russian culture at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries: the Gnostic "Renaissance" in the context of symbolism (continued)




I.V. Kondakov. The cat as a cultural hero: from Puss in Boots to Schrodinger's Cat

N.A. Khrenov. A Century later: the tragic experience of Soviet Culture (continued)

I.E. Isakas. Hypothesis. The Christmas tree is a symbol of the second coming of Christ


A.Ya. Flier. Is culture inevitable? (on the limits of the social usefulness of culture) (Philosophical dystopia)

A.A. Pelipenko. Culture as an inevitability (on the subjective status of culture)

Announcement of the next issue


Anna Vladimirovna Kostina,
Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Cultural Studies,
Professor, Vice-rector of Moscow State University for Scientific and
Educational Work, Director of the Institute
Fundamental and Applied Research, Head of the Department of Philosophy,
Cultural Studies and Political Science
Moscow University for the Humanities

Andrey Yakovlevich Flier,
Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
Chief Researcher
D.S. Likhachev Russian Research Institute of Cultural
and Natural Heritage,
Professor at Moscow State
Linguistic University.

Ternary functional model of culture [1]

Abstract. This essay reflects a new understanding of the phenomenon of culture, which is divided into three social subcultures: elite (creative), folk (traditional) and mass (consumer). This interpretation is based on the hypothesis of A.V. Kostina that the creators and consumers of these subcultures differ in the type of social psychology, attitude to life and awareness of their own social role, and the hypothesis of A.Ya. Flier that these three subcultures concentrate different ways of adapting to external conditions of existence and implement three different models of translation social experience. Both hypotheses organically converged in a joint study.

Keywords: culture, social subcultures, psychology, interests, traditions, innovations, consumerism.


[11] See about this: Moscovici S. The Century of Crowds. M.: Center for Psychology and Psychotherapy, KSP+, 1998.
[12] P.Berger wittily called mass culture the "mcworld", referring to visitors to McDonald's eateries (Berger P. Cultural dynamics of globalization // Multifaceted Globalization. Cultural diversity in the modern world. Moscow: Aspect Press, 2004).
[13] This culture should not be confused with the military culture of the officer corps, which is largely regulated by considerations of social prestige, honor, etc. Soldiers are de facto slaves in the trenches, and the grounds for their social consolidation differ little from hard labor.
[14] See: Bocharov V.V. Political anthropology // The anthropology of power. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg State University Publishing House, 2007. Vol. 1. Power in anthropological discourse.
[15] In matters of sophistication of exclusive consumption, pop culture stars will give odds to any aristocrats. Taste preferences are not compared here.
[16] The failure of Soviet cultural policy, which at first (in Stalin's time) sought to build the national culture of the Soviet people on the forms of classical Russian culture of the XIX century (collective farmers were bused to the Bolshoi Theater), then (under Khrushchev) turned to imitating the forms of Russian folk culture (the Berezka ensemble, songs by M. Fradkin and others), and then (under Brezhnev) she began to build a mass artistic culture of the Soviet type (songs by A. Pakhmutova, A. Babajanyan, etc.). For all the undoubted artistic merits of the work of these authors, the competition for the aesthetic preferences of the Soviet man was won by the mass culture of the Western type, which turned out to be more organic and emotionally relevant in terms of time and real conditions of existence. Former American President Bill Clinton wittily remarked that Elvis Presley won the Cold War.
[17] See, for example: Astafyeva O.N. Mass culture // Globalistics. Encyclopedia. Moscow: Raduga, Dialog, 2003.
[18] For example, a church sermon as a "government – people" communication, conducted in an accessible form, in an accessible language. Or a carnival – an action "with a change of faces", which has now turned into an action "with the cancellation of faces" – a football match or a rock concert.
[19] See, for example: Shestakov V.P. Theory and practice of mass culture // History of aesthetic thought. Moscow: Iskusstvo, 1990. Vol. 5
[20] For more information, see: Kostina A.V. National culture – ethnic culture – mass culture: "Balance of Interests" in modern society, pp. 166-168.
[21] For more information about this, see: Arendt X. The Origins of totalitarianism. M.: Tsentrkom, 1996.
[22] In our opinion, traditional culture does not actually participate in the formation of national culture. The functions of culture regulating social exchanges in urban life are gradually shifting to consumer culture in its modern mass and manipulative forms.
[23] Gellner E. Nations and nationalism. M.: Progress, 1991.
[24] See, for example, such an academic work as: The History of primitive Society. The Epoch of the primitive tribal community. Moscow: Nauka, 1986.
[25] Of course, there are many studies of the genesis of the appropriating culture of the Paleolithic, including those belonging to one of the co-authors of this work, but they cannot be called purposeful studies of the genesis of consumer culture as a separate object.
[26] For more information, see: Life support culture and ethnicity. The experience of ethnocultural research (based on the materials of Armenian rural culture). Yerevan: Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian SSR, 1983.
[27] According to biology, only rivalry is always observed between animal micro-collectives (See: Dolnik V.R. The disobedient child of the biosphere. Conversations about human behavior in the company of birds, animals and children. Moscow-St. Petersburg: Petrogif, 2004).
[28] The procedure of potlatch – ritual donation (exchange of gifts) is considered as a symbolic quintessence of ethnism (Moss M. An essay on the gift. The form and basis of exchange in archaic societies // Moss M. Societies. Exchange. Personality. M.: Science. The main editorial office of Oriental literature, 1996).
[29] Flier A.Ya. Cultural genesis (section "Ethnogenesis in culture"); Kostina A.V. Theoretical problems of modern cultural studies. Moscow: URSS, 2009 (section "Language systems as the basis of pre-written and screen culture: from the development of information to the development of culture").
[30] On the significance of the cultural revolution of the "axial time", see: Jaspers K. The meaning and purpose of history; Nazaretyan A.P. Anthropology of violence and culture of self-organization. Moscow: LKI Publishing House, 2007. Jaspers believes that it is at this time that a rational rethinking of the world and a departure from mythological consciousness take place (Jaspers K. The meaning and purpose of history. M.: Republic, 1991, pp. 32-50). This gives even greater reasons to associate the formation of creative culture as socially dominant with this time.
[31] In essence, the set of formal requirements currently imposed on scientific work (for example, a dissertation) is the ideal embodiment of the basic principles of creative culture. Science is creative culture in its ultimate embodiment.
[32] Of course, all this was not simultaneous all over the world. Obviously, it can be noted that in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, due to the speed of social processes taking place in these regions, the creative type of people was in demand somewhat earlier than the "axial time". But we are talking about the Old World as a whole. Of course, all this was not simultaneous all over the world. Obviously, it can be noted that in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, due to the speed of social processes taking place in these regions, the creative type of people was in demand somewhat earlier than the "axial time". But we are talking about the Old World as a whole.
[33] Flier A.Ya. Cultural genesis (sections "Formogenesis in culture", dedicated to the creative innovativeness of culture, and "Sociogenesis in culture"); Kostina A.V. National culture – ethnic culture – mass culture: "Balance of interests" in modern society (sections: "Ethnos – nation – mass: dominant identification strategies" and "Principles of dialogue as the foundation of national culture").



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